This guide provides a look at common verb structures and patterns used in English. Each structure is explained and an example of correct usage is given.
Verb Structures and Patterns Guidelines
|Intransitive||An intransitive verb does not take a direct object||They’re sleeping.
They arrived late.
|Transitive||A transitive verb takes a direct object. The direct object can be a noun, a pronoun or a clause.||They bought the sweater.
He watched them.
|Linking||A linking verb is followed by a noun or adjective which refers to the subject of the verb.||The meal looked wonderful.
He felt embarrassed.
There are also many verb patterns which are common in English. When two verbs are used, it is especially important to notice which form the second verb takes (infinitive – to do – base form – do – verb ing – doing).
|verb infinitive||This is one of the most common verb combination forms.||I waited to begin dinner.
They wanted to come to the party.
|verb verb ing||This is one of the most common verb combination forms.||They enjoyed listening to the music.
They regretted spending so much time on the project.
|verb verb ing OR verb infinitive – no change in meaning||Some verbs can combine with other verbs using both forms without changing the basic meaning of the sentence.||She started to eat dinner. OR She started eating dinner.|
|verb verb ing OR verb infinitive – change in meaning||Some verbs can combine with other verbs using both forms. However, with these verbs, there is a change in the basic meaning of the sentence.||They stopped speaking to each other. => They don’t speak to each other anymore.
They stopped to speak to each other. => They stopped walking in order to speak to each other.
|verb indirect object direct object||An indirect object is usually placed before a direct object when a verb takes both an indirect and direct object.||I bought her a book.
She asked him the question.
|verb object infinitive||This is the most common form when a verb is followed by both an object and a verb.||She asked her to find a place to stay.
They instructed them to open the envelope.
|verb object base form (infinitive without ‘to’)||This form is used with a few verbs (let, help and make).||She made her finish her homework.
They let him go to the concert.
He helped him paint the house.
|verb object verb ing||This form is less common than verb object infinitive.||I observed them painting the house.
I heard her singing in the living room.
|verb object clause with ‘that’||Use this form for a clause beginning with ‘that’.||She told him that she would worker harder.
He informed him that he was going to resign.
|verb object clause with ‘wh-‘||Use this form for a clause beginning with wh- (why, when, where)||They were instructed where to go.
She told me why she had done it.
|verb object past participle||This form is often used when someone does something for someone else.||He had his car washed.
They want the report finished immediately.