Category Archives: grammar

6 Macam Kata Kerja (Verb)

Verbs

Verbs (kata kerja) adalah kata yang menunjukkan nama perbuatan yang dilakukan oleh subyek, namun mungkin juga untuk menunjukkan keadaan. Verbs biasanya menjadi Predikat dari suatu kalimat.

Contoh:

  • Henry comes from London.
  • My brother studies in America.
  • She is very beautiful.
  • They are diligent.

Macam-macam Kata Kerja


1. Finite Verb (Kata Kerja Biasa)

Ciri-ciri Kata Kerja Jenis ini adalah sebagai berikut:

  • Bila dipakai dalam kalimat tanya dan negative perlu memakai kata kerja bantu do, does atau did.
  • Bentuknya dapat berubah-ubah oleh tense.
  • Biasanya mempunyai bentuk-bentuk:
  • Infinitive
  • Present Participle
  • Gerund
  • Past Tense
  • Present Tense
  • Past Participle

Contoh:

  • Ms. Anne reads a novel. (Infinitive)
  • Ms. Anne is reading a novel. (Present Participle)
  • Does Ms. Anne read a novel?
  • Ms. Anne read a novel. (Past Tense)
  • Ms. Anne has read a novel. (Past Participle)

Continue reading

Simple past tense

Simple Past Tense adalah bentuk waktu yang menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi di masa lampau dan tidak ada hubungannya sama sekali dengan masa sekarang.

A. Bentuk Kalimat



Kalimat Nominal

Positive

Subject Was/were complement
you/we/they were complement
I/she/he/it was complement

Contoh :

  • I was here at 07.35 pm last night ( saya berada disini pukul07.35 semalam)
  • We were the good dancer in 2009`s (kami penari yang bagus tahun 2009-an(waktu itu/dulu)

Negative

Subject Was/were not complement
you/we/they were not complement
I/she/he/it was not complement

Contoh :

  • I was not here at 07.35 pm last night
  • We were not good dancers  in 2009`s

Yes – no question

Was/were Subject Complement?
were you/we/they Complement?
was I/she/he/it Complement?

Contoh :

  • was  She  here at 07.35 pm last night?
  • were  we the good dancers  in 2009`s ?

WH–word Question/questionword(Qw)

Question word/Qw was/were Subject Complement?
Question word/Qw were you/we/they Complement?
Question word/Qw was I/she/he/it Complement?
  1. Where were you at 07.35 pm last night?
  2. what was at the window yesterday?

Keterangan:

  • was digunakan untuk I,she,he,it ( orang ketiga tungal)
  • were digunakan untuk they,we,you


Kalimat Verbal

Positive

Subject verb2 object/adverb
I/you/we/they/she/he/it verb2 object/adverb

Continue reading

THE 23 AUXILIARY VERBS

1.  Twelve (12) verbs, when used as auxiliary verbs, combine with the base form only (“base form” = infinitive minus “to”; for example:  to go  = infinitive; go  = base form).

will                          would                     may                       do                            shall                       should                   might                     does                       can                         could                      must                      did

OK:  I will go.  You can go.  He should go.  We may go.  They do go.                Not OK: I will going.  You can gone.  He should goes.  We may went.  They do going.

2.  Seven (7) verbs, when used as auxiliary verbs, combine with present participles (base form plus ing: for example, going ) OR past participles (I have walked.  I have gone.)

am          is             are          was        were      be           been

OK:  I am going.  He is going.  He is gone.  You are going.  You are gone.  She was going.  She was gone.  We were going.  We were gone.  They will be going.  They will be gone.  It has been going.  It has been gone.                                            Not OK:  I am go.  I am went.  He is goes.  He was wenting.  She will be goning.

Note:  Been  is the past participle of to be.   But, none of the 7 verbs above combines with been.  In fact, only three auxiliaries combine with been:  have, has, had.  One of these three  is always immediately in front of been  (for example:  I have been  sick.  He has been  sick.  I had been  sick.), except in the negative and interrogative (for example:  I have not been  sick. (negative)    Has he been  sick? (interrogative)).  Also Note:  Been  cannot stand alone.  For example:  Not OK:  I been  here two years.    OK:  I have been  here two years.   Not OK:  I been  living  here two years.   OK:  I have been living  here two years.

Continue reading

Eight parts of speech

When determining the usage of words in sentences, it is helpful to understand the eight parts of speech. The eight basic parts of speech are simple. They are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. All English words fit into one of these grammatical categories. Many English words function as more than one part of speech. Take the word fly for example. When you fly in a plane, it is a verb; when you swat a fly, it is a noun; and when you wear fly shades, it is a slang adjective. English can be confusing because words can mean more than one thing, but if you know your eight parts of speech, you will avoid confusion.

Verbs are words used to express action, condition, or a state of being. They are used in speech to move the meanings of sentences along. An action verb expresses an action. Words such as throw, create, and draw express physical action. Mental actions can be expressed by words such as believe, desire, and visualize. Verbs such as be and feel are used to show states of being. Helping verbs, or auxiliary verbs, are used to help the main verb express action or create verb phrases. Some examples of auxiliary verbs are would, might and am.

Nouns are words that name a person, place, thing or idea. A few examples of nouns are person, place, thing and idea. Proper nouns name specific things such as Jeff, California, and English. To change a noun from singular form to plural form an s or es must be added to the end of the word. Two examples are thing/things and dish/dishes. Some nouns have irregular plural forms and are a little harder to spell sometimes. A couple of these nouns are man/men, and reality/realities. To show ownership, one must add an apostrophe s to the end of a singular noun, or just an apostrophe to a plural noun. Examples of the possessive form are Jeff’s possession and fools’ wisdom.

Continue reading

Clause types

Clause types
• main
• subordinate
Main clauses
A main clause is complete on its own. It may be a complete sentence written with a capital letter and full stop (or ?!):
Alice saw a rabbit.
Anna is eating her favourite supper.
Finally, we arrived.
Simple sentences consist of just one main clause:
Hannah is eating her favourite supper.
Finally, we arrived.
Compound sentences consist of two or more main clauses – clauses of equal weight, joined together by and, or, but, or so. (This relationship is called co-ordination, and is explained in a separate unit.)
I’ve lost my school bag but the keys are here so I’m not locked out.
It’s late, so she’s not going.
I like reading and I love Hemingway.
Complex sentences contain one or more subordinate clauses.
Subordinate clauses
A subordinate clause is part of a larger clause.
He burns easily if he doesn’t use sun cream.
Where is the cup of tea that you promised to make?
Everything she buys is really expensive.
The class I taught last year all did quite well.

Because the subordinate clause is part of the larger clause, the remainder of this clause is not itself a complete clause; so in the first example above the main clause is the entire sentence, not He burns easily.
Using subordinate clauses allows writers to vary pace and rhythm and to indicate the relative importance of different ideas.
To learn more about subordinate clauses, click any of the following links:
• Subordination signals
• Finite and non-finite clauses
• Noun clauses
• Relative clauses
• Adverbial clauses
• Nested subordinate clauses

Continue reading

Auxiliary verb

In linguistics, an auxiliary verb is a verb that gives further semantic or syntactic information about a main or full verb. In English, the extra meaning provided by an auxiliary verb alters the basic meaning of the main verb to make it have one or more of the following functions: passive voice, progressive aspect, perfect aspect, modality, or emphasis. It is also called helping verb, helper verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary, and abbreviated aux.

In English, every clause has a finite verb which consists of a main verb (a non-auxiliary verb) and optionally one or more auxiliary verbs, each of which is a separate word. Examples of finite verbs include write (no auxiliary verb), have written (one auxiliary verb), and have been written (two auxiliary verbs). Many languages, including English, feature some verbs that can act either as auxiliary or as main verbs, such as be (“I am writing a letter” vs “I am a postman”) and have (“I have written a letter” vs “I have a letter”). In the case of be, it is sometimes ambiguous whether it is auxiliary or not; for example, “the ice cream was melted” could mean either “something melted the ice cream” (in which case melt would be the main verb) or “the ice cream was mostly liquid” (in which case be would be the main verb).

The primary auxiliary verbs in English are to be and to have; other major ones include shall, will, may and can.

Continue reading

Kalimat Verbal dan Kalimat Nominal

Tips belajar bahasa inggris kali ini saya akan membahas bagaimana cara mudah agar kita dapat membuat kalimat dalam bahasa inggris yang sesuai dengan grammar atau tata bahasa yang baik. Selayaknya, pemahaman mengenai struktur dasar kalimat menjadi prioritas yang harus dikuasai sebelum bercengkerama dengan aspek-aspek pembelajaran bahasa Inggris lainnya.

Dalam bahasa inggris, secara mendasar semua predikat dalam kalimat harus mengekspresikan sebuah aktifitas aktif secara langsung . Adapun kalimat yang predikatnya tidak menggunakan kata kerja (aktif), maka dibantu menggunakan Auxiliaty verb / helping verb (to be, have/has, do/does,will/shall) karena fungsi dari to Be adalah kata kerja untuk membantu pada kalimat yang predikatnya tidak mengandung verb dalam kalimat nominal. semoga di pahami.. he3

Pola dasar kalimat

So, hal yang perlu kamu perhatikan dalam membuat kalimat dalam bahasa inggris adalah kamu harus bisa membedakan antara kalimat  verbal dan kalimat non-verbal (nominal). Dan jangan lupa selalu berpatokan pada posisi predikat kalimat pada tensis yang digunakan. selebihnya bisa menyesuaikan.

a. Kalimat Verbal

Kalimat verbal adalah kalimat yang Predikatnya menggunakan kata kerja.

Berikut ini saya berikan beberapa contoh kalimat verbal menggunakan simple present tense.

Continue reading

Common Types of Phrases

There are several types of phrases used in English that are named after the most  important words used in that phrase. By learning what these phrases look like and how they are used, the writer can construct stronger sentences.

1. Verb phrase

Verb phrases are easy to recognize. They consist of a verb and all the related helping words. Verb phrases function as single-word verbs, to express action or to link subject and complement.

1.1  I have been asking for a raise for ten years. (Verb phrases may consist of adjacent words)

1.2  Despite being an actor, he has never actually succeeded in learning many   lines. (Verb phrases may have other words that interrupt them)

1.3  I’ve just been working on this, and the problem is in the cable. (Verb phrases may contain a contraction)

2. Prepositional phrase

Prepositional phrases start with a preposition (such as in, at, by, for, to, over, etc.), have a noun or pronoun object of the preposition, and may also have other modifiers. Prepositional phrases function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

2.1  The announcement for the play arrived after it was over. (As adjective)

2.2  He walked into the meeting just as the president arrived. (As adverb)

2.3  For you to pass your test is the reason for having a tutor. (As noun; in this   case, the subject)

2.4  She gave the information to me. (As indirect object)

3. Participial phrase

Participial phrases are formed from participles and all the related words. Participles are formed from verbs and end in “ing” or “ed.” Participles function as adjectives; therefore, participial phrases also function as adjectives. They often describe the subject of the sentence.

3.1  Laughing wildly, she ran down the path. (Describes “she”)

3.2  The actor, pausing for a moment, looked at the crowd. (Describes “actor”)

3.3  He showed us the cabinet, painted a brilliant green. (Describes the object “cabinet”)

4. Infinitive phrase

An infinitive phrase is formed from an infinitive and other related words. An infinitive is the word “to” followed by a verb. This type of phrase functions as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

4.1  To get an appointment with him requires a great amount of patience. (As a noun subject)

4.2  He wanted to see the Eiffel Tower, but he didn’t know where it was. (As a noun direct object)

4.3  He wrote a letter to raise funds for the foundation. (As an adverb)

4.4  The decision to eliminate vacations was very unpopular. (As an adjective)

5. Gerund phrase

A gerund phrase if formed from a gerund plus its related words. A gerund is a verb with an “ing” ending that functions as a noun. Gerund phrases look like some participial phrases. The difference is that participial phrases function as adjectives; gerund phrases function as nouns.

5.1  Geraldine’s singing always enthralls the audience. (As subject)

5.2  Sam hates getting a headache when he works late. (As direct object)

5.3  His favorite activity is sailing down the Nahanni River. (As subject complement)

6. Absolute phrase

An absolute phrase, also called a “nominative absolute,” contains a noun phrase subject and a “partial” predicate. Absolute phrases resemble clauses, but the predicate is incomplete, with forms of the word “be” being deleted from the phrase. Absolute phrases function as a type of modifier that explains more about the general circumstances occurring in the main clause. They may be placed at almost any position in the sentence.

6.1  The plumber disappeared into the hole, a pipe wrench in his hand.

6.2  Its lights off and its doors locked, the mansion looked spooky in the moonlight.

6.3  Many boats—their anchors buried in the sand—lay on the salty bed of the dried-up sea.